Rising Beyond the Three Qualities of Nature

21

Arjuna: My competent friend, what are the essential qualities of people who have surpassed the three qualities [of material nature]? What is their behavior? How do they rise beyond these qualities?

22-23

Krishna: If you rise beyond the three qualities of nature, you will have these essential qualities: You will not love or hate the flourishing or abatement of any of the symptoms of the three qualities, like illumination, accumulation, or illusion.

You will be seated neutrally, apart from such things, unmoved by them, knowing, “This is just the business of nature’s qualities.” Thus you will be very firm and never waver.

Arjuna: What would my behavior be like?

24-25

Krishna: When you do not invest yourself into these qualities, and instead remain situated within your true self, you become equal towards pleasure and displeasure. You behave towards gold as you behave towards dirt and stone. You behave towards the unwanted as you behave towards the dear. You behave in criticism as you behave in great praise. You feel behave in honor as you behave in dishonor. You behave towards enemies as you behave towards friends.

You completely give up all new enterprises and efforts, considering all results to be the same. Then you would be called “he who is beyond the qualities of nature.”

Arjuna: How can I rise beyond the three qualities and attain this exalted condition?

26

Krishna: If you unwaveringly serve me with affection you thoroughly surpass these qualities and become a spiritual being.

Arjuna: Why is it that by loving you one becomes spiritual?

27

Krishna: Because I am the foundation of spirituality, the essence of the inexhaustible fountain of immortal, ceaseless, penultimate pleasure.

A Survey of the Three Qualities

Here is an excerpt from Chapter 14 of the first draft of the Bhagavad-Gita presentation I am working on.

5

Krishna: Prakṛti, “Nature” is the first thing produced from the singularity. It has three qualities: sattva, rajas, and tamas. My strong friend, these three are the ropes that bind the limitless living being to a body.

Arjuna: Can you explain more about each quality?

6-9

Krishna: Sattva is clear and undistorted and therefore allows the illumination of consciousness to shine brightly. Its rope, though, is the desire for happiness and comprehension.

Rajas is distorted by passion. Its ropes around the living being are ever-rising thirsts and endeavors.

Tamas is the strongest of all. It darkens with ignorance and thus bewilders every soul. It has many ropes, like foolishness, laziness and stagnation.

In summary: Sattva creates happiness. Rajas creates efforts. Tamas eclipses knowledge and creates foolishness.

Spiritual Equality

Excerpt from my forthcoming rendition of Bhagavad-Gita. Chapter 13, from text 28 till the end – a bit abridged.

Krishna: “The Supreme Master is equally situated in all entities. Things which appear to be destroyed are indestructible.” They see this, because they truly see.

Arjuna: There are so many different people and things – how is it possible to see oneness and equality?

Krishna: These differences are in the field only, not in the field-knower. All deeds and endeavors occur in, and by, the field. The field-knower, however, is not truly involved in any of it. That is real vision, try to see it.

Arjuna: Why should I give more preference to the field-knower, the “true self.” Why not focus on its identity as a participant in the field?

Krishna: Even if you focus upon the field, you will find it is all essentially one, despite the infinite variations in its appearance. All the very different external manifestations of things are simply expansions from the singularity of the field. Try to see the truth of this theory and you will have a spiritual vision of the world.

Arjuna: But why shouldn’t I focus upon the being the self becomes when it mixes with its field?

Krishna: Arjuna, the field-knower dwells within the body, but does not blend into it and does not truly do anything with it; because it is a causeless entity, beyond delimitations, inexhaustible, and superior to the field.

Arjuna: How can the soul be within the body, yet not blend into it and become implicated in it?

Krishna: Because it is a substratum, like space. Isn’t space everywhere, yet unblended and quite distinct from everything as well? Similarly, the soul is spread all throughout the body, yet remains distinct and unblended.

Arjuna: If it does not blend with the body, what is the point of spreading through it?

Krishna: To spread the illumination of consciousness! Just as one sun illuminates the entire world, the field-knower illuminate the entire body with consciousness.

Online Gita Class

I would like to teach a 24-hour/session Bhagavad-Gita class online:

  • 1 session for each of the 18 chapters,
  • 1 extra session for each long chapter – 2 and 18
  • 4 sessions free for discussion, and if possible to go into more detail on the Sanskrit of specific important texts

The important part now is to see how many people are seriously interested in taking the course. I’ve done group classes over Skype before for astrology and it is pretty easy and simple. The more students we get, the less the tuition per student. We can accept up to 12 students, and then the tuition per student would be $100.

If you’re interested in this, please ask around / spread the word and see who else might be interested. Once we get a significant list of interested students, we can sort out the schedule details with everyone and get started.

Interested parties should contact me by email, or, if you don’t have my email address, through my contact form. If you have questions or comments you can also comment on this post.

Thank you!

Matter and Spirit

Krishna: What do you already know?

Arjuna: I know the dictionary meanings. The term prakṛti means “energy – the thing from which other things are created.” The term puruṣa means “person – the conscious being.” So, prakṛti is matter, and puruṣa is spirit.

Krishna: Good. Do you know anything else?

Arjuna: I think that matter is the field-of-activity, and spirit is the field-knower.

Krishna: Good. Then, what confuses you about them?

Arjuna: How and when do the two become related?

20

Krishna: You must understand that matter and spirit are both without chronological origins. Their relationship has no beginning.

Arjuna: How can matter be eternal? It is constantly being created and destroyed!

Krishna: Exactly. Matter has delimitations, and is therefore in an eternal state of change.

Arjuna: Spirit has no changes?

21

Krishna: Not directly. Not in the same way that matter does. We say that matter causes the mechanisms and substances of creation. By identifying with these fluctuating substances, spirit experiences a sensation of change. Therefore we say that spirit causes participation in emotions like pleasures and pains.

Arjuna: How do the two become linked together?

22

Krishna: Spirit becomes enmeshed in matter because it wants to enjoy the various things available in the field. That is why spirit embraces qualification and delimitation, and takes birth in matter through various wombs.

The True Object of Knowledge

From Gita’s 13th chapter…

Arjuna: What truly is the object of knowledge?

13

Krishna: When you come to know the true object of knowledge, you will experience immortal bliss. It is the beginningless spiritual energy that descends from me, described as beyond both existence and non-existence.

Arjuna: To be beyond both existence and non-existence is inconceivable. How then will I be able to perceive the object of knowledge?

14-18

Krishna: Its hand and feet are everywhere. Its eyes, heads, and faces are everywhere. It hears through every ear. It surrounds and permeates everything.

It is the power of illumination in all your senses, yet it is far away from all your senses. It has no affections, yet it certainly cares for everyone. It is beyond qualification, yet completely qualified.

It is within all living beings, yet beyond all of them. It is immovable, yet it moves. It is beyond full comprehension, because it is so subtle. It is very far away, but also very close.

It is indivisible, yet divided within everything. That object of knowledge creates, maintains, and destroys all things.

It is certainly the luminosity within all luminous things, described as “beyond darkness.” It is knowledge. It is the object of knowledge. And, within the hearts of all beings, it is approached through knowledge.

Arjuna’s eyes were wide with wonder and no words came from his mouth.

19

Krishna: So far, I’ve answered your questions about the “field,” and have explained that the field-knower is the spirit. I explained that the supreme spirit is the ultimate object of knowledge; and I have described the process of attaining this knowledge.

Arjuna [still stunned]: Yes… but who can fully understand what you have said?

Krishna: Someone like you. Those who have true devotion to me can comprehend all this in their effort to attain my intimate association.

 

Knowledge and the Object of Knowledge

8

Krishna: Knowledge begins with humility and sincerity.

Arjuna: What comes next?

Krishna: Humility and sincerity make us patient and honest. This makes us good students who learn well.

Arjuna: What do good students learn from their teachers?

Krishna: First, we learn self-control, beginning with cleanliness and regularity.

Arjuna: What are other aspects of self-control?

9

Krishna: The essence of self-control is to diminish the ego and control its desire to exploit the sensual world.

Arjuna: How does the teacher help us do this?

Krishna: By teaching us to be aware of the miseries inherent in it: that birth leads to death, after dragging us through age and illness.

Arjuna: What happens when we diminish the ego and thus slacken our passion to enjoy the sensual world?

10

Krishna: It is like being freed from an all-consuming addiction. We then loosen our compulsive embrace on objects of pleasure, like children, spouses, and homes.

Arjuna: What is the experience like?

Krishna: You will feel your mind become ever-balanced, regardless of obtaining desired or undesired results.

Arjuna: Is this peace the goal, or is there something even more worthy beyond it?

11

Krishna: This peaceful detachment from the interaction of the fields is the beginning of the greatest joy: true love. At this stage you can turn to me and form an uninterrupted link of pure divine love, without any ulterior motive.

Arjuna: How does the person at this stage of knowledge begin to develop that connection with you?

Krishna: Losing all interest in common people and places, you will seek a quiet, solitary residence.

Arjuna: Why seek solitude?

12

Krishna: You will want to be free from interruptions to your contemplation of the true self. You will not want to see anything except the object of true knowledge.

Arjuna: Is this the culmination of knowledge and education?

Krishna: Yes. Beginning from humility and ending at uninterrupted intimacy with the object of true knowledge – these are the constituents of knowledge and education. Anything outside these principles is ignorance.

Know Your Field

Having heard Krishna express how attracted he is to those who are equipoised towards all things, Arjuna desired to gain better understanding of the knowledge that enables such a perception of the world.

1-3

Arjuna: Dear Krishna, I want to understand a few pairs of concepts: prakriti and puruṣa; kṣetra and kṣetra-jña; and jñāna and jñeya. Please explain these terms.

Krishna: Kṣetra means “field.” In philosophy the term refers to your body and its world, which is your “field of activity.”

Kṣetra-jña means “field-knower.” In philosophy this refers to the consciousness that acts within your body, the “field.” Kṣetra-jña refers not only to you, the individual consciousness aware of a single field, but also to me, the super-consciousness aware of all fields.

As for jñāna, that term means “knowledge.” In my opinion, “knowledge” consists of understanding the field and the field-knower.

Arjuna: Please explain more about the field and the field-knower, so that I might become wise with knowledge.

4-5

Krishna: Listen carefully to what I have to say about the field, how it works and what it does; and the powers of the field-knower. I will summarize the many different teachings of the sages, the scriptures, and the philosophical codes.

Arjuna: Certainly, I will listen very carefully.

6-7

Krishna: Your field-of-activity can be summarized as the interactions between various elements.

Arjuna: What elements?

Krishna: First the five tangible elements: solids, liquids, gasses, energies, and space. And then, the sense of ego, which makes one feel important enough to control and exploit these elements.

Arjuna: Are there more elements in the field-of-activity?

Krishna: Yes, many more. There is intellect, the immediate tool of the ego. And there is the unseen background nature, of which the ego is the immediate tool.

Arjuna: What is the tool of the intellect?

Krishna: It has eleven tools, the eleven senses. The most important is the mind. Then there are the five senses of input (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and skin) and the five senses of output (voice, hands, legs, genital, and anus).

Arjuna: What are the tools of these senses?

Krishna: The five sense-objects: form, sound, scent, taste, and touch.

Arjuna: Is there anything else in the field?

Krishna: No. These 24 items sufficiently summarize the ingredients on the field-of-activity.

Dear Krishna, “What Turns You On?”

Arjuna: What qualities come to a person who progresses on the path of bhakti that you’ve outlined here?

13-14

Krishna: You will never feel hatred towards anyone; being always friendly and certainly very compassionate. You will never feel possessive, and never feel important. You will be patient, looking upon pleasure and pain with an equal eye. You will always feel satisfied; being ever linked to the divine. You will be self-disciplined and determined. Your emotions and thoughts will be enrapt in me. You will be in love with me, and I will be in love with you.

Arjuna: What qualities do you find most attractive?

15

Krishna: I am very attracted to anyone who never troubles others and never feels troubled by others; never driven by the urges of thrills, desperations, and fears.

Arjuna: Please say more, what else attracts you?

16

Krishna: I am very attracted to my devotee, who completely gives up all other aspirations and the disturbances they cause; a very neutral party, impartial, pure, and expertly balanced.

Arjuna: Are there other qualities you find attractive?

17

Krishna: I am very attracted to anyone who completely gives up everything desirable and undesirable for the sake of divine devotion; never lamenting and hating an undesirable situation, and never hungering and yearning for a desirable one.

Arjuna: Go on! Is there anything else?

18-19

Krishna: I am very attracted to anyone who, out of firm dedication to divine devotion, looks equally upon friends and enemies, honor and dishonor, hot and cold, pleasure and misery: equally rejecting the embrace of them all. Such a person is equally silent in the face of both insults and praise, because he or she is fully satisfied already, in any situation. They do not even require a roof over their heads!

Arjuna: Of all these beautiful qualities that attract you, which is the most compelling in evoking your heart?

20

Krishna: The most important quality that attracts my love is when a person fully puts their heart and soul into this blissful, immortal principle that I am the paramount object of their love and devotion.

Is God Awful and Terrible?

35-36

Arjuna: [With folded, trembling hands, fearfully bowing down, in a faltering voice addressing his now unseen friend, Krishna]

O Master of Senses hearing your kīrtana [glorification] makes the whole world joyful and delighted.

Krishna: But you have just seen my horrible, and fearsome aspect!

Arjuna: Yes, but this exists only for the sake of ghastly people – who flee from it in terror. The perfected souls do not flee, they offer you respect in all circumstances, fearsome or pleasant.

Krishna: Why should they respect something so horrible?

37

Arjuna: Because it is also a part of you, who are never truly destructive. You are the original creator of the creator. You are the limitless master of the benevolent gods. You are the shelter of the universe.

Krishna: But is this form I have just shown you not truly destructive?

Arjuna: It is. However, it is a reflection of our own destructive nature. You yourself are far beyond the relative good and bad of these temporary causes and effects.

Krishna: What do you mean? Am I beyond these horrific affairs, or am I within them?

38

Arjuna: This universe exists within you, but you are far beyond it, transcendent. You are the original, most ancient Divine Being. You are everything that we comprehend, and you are also comprehension itself, and you are also the state of being that is transcendentally beyond both. You are the unlimited being pervading everything that exists.

Krishna: I see. That is why the perfected souls always offer me respect, even amidst a horrific universe. But wouldn’t it be wiser to respect someone else?

39-40

Arjuna: But you are all such beings! You are Vāyu, god of air. You are Yama, god of death. You are Agni, god of fire. You are Varuṇa, god of space. You are the heavenly bodies, like the Moon. You are the original ancestor, Brahmā. So who should we respect more than you!?

Let there be respect after respect unto you, a thousand times over. And even that is not enough! Still more I should again offer respect after respect to you! I bow to you from the front, and from behind. You are everything, so let me bow to you always and everywhere!

Krishna: But am I not simply your friend in the chariot, in front of you?

Arjuna: Your limitless power and unstoppable force support everything. In that sense, you are everything.

Krishna: Am I your friend or not?

41-42

Arjuna: Full of self-importance, I took you as my friend. I spoke to you like that, “Hey Krishna! Hey cousin! Hey friend!” I was ignorant of your true greatness.

Krishna: But that was because of your love for me!

Arjuna: Maybe it was love, or maybe it was foolishness. I even criticized you in sarcastic jokes, while we relaxed together: lying or sitting around and eating together as if we were equals. O Inscrutable One, I ask your forgiveness for my countless transgressions.

Krishna: But this was all out of love!

43-44

Arjuna: Then please forgive me, as a loving father excuses the behavior of his children. You are indeed the father of everything, animate and inanimate, in the world. You are the most worshipable and glorious guru. How can there be anyone else like you? How can anyone equal your infinite power – amongst humans, demons, or gods?

Therefore please be kind to me, like a guru or a father. Or like a friend forgives a friend. Or like a lover forgives the beloved.

Krishna: All right, but what will become of the relationship we had?

45-46

Arjuna: Let us return to it! I am thrilled to have seen this never-before-seen sight – yet it has cast my mind into the waves of fear. Please return to your form as the compassionate master of gods, and shelter of the world.

O thousand-armed universal form, I hope to see you in your four-armed form, with a mace and disc in your hands, and a crown upon your head.

47-50

Krishna: [Transforming from the universal form into four-armed Viṣṇu] Happily, I used my mystic power to give you the vision of that unsurpassed form of mine: composed of power, universal, endless, and beginningless. No one but you has seen it before.

Arjuna, that form cannot be seen on the strength of sacrifice, philosophical study, charitable deeds, scrupulous duties, nor even by the most severe austerities. Comprehending that form allows one to see me even in the normal affairs of the everyday world. None but you have seen it.

But it has disturbed and confused you to see me in that terrifying universal form, and that was not my intention. So now be freed from this fear, and regain your affectionate, loving disposition towards me.

[Viṣṇu then transformed into his own original, gentle form, as Krishna]

51

Arjuna: [Breathing a sigh of relief and happiness] Krishna, seeing you in your gentle, human form calms my mind and allows me to return to my natural state.

52-53

Krishna: The form you see me in now is the rarest of all visions. Even the gods constantly aspire for a vision of this form.

By studying scriptures, by undergoing austerities, by giving everything away, by worship, by any of these means it is impossible to see me in the form you now see.

Arjuna: Then how am I seeing it?

54

Krishna: Because you have pure, undivided love for me! Arjuna, that is the only way I can be known in this form, as Krishna.

Arjuna: But everyone here on the battlefield can see you, too.

Krishna: They do not truly see me. Only by undivided love can one enter into comprehension of the full truth of what you now see before you.

Arjuna: How can a person gain this vision?

55

Krishna: If they work for my sake, make me their ultimate objective, give their love to me, casting off all other embraces, and never think of any creature as their enemy… Then, Arjuna, they will gain me.